Among the incurable diseases, some can be viral, like Herpes. The 10 main incurable diseases are :
Multiple sclerosis: pathology that affects the nervous system and usually appears between 25 and 30 years. The disease comes from an inflammation-causing degradation of the myelin, a substance which forms the sheath of the nerve fibers and makes it possible to connect the information between the brain and the rest of the body. To date, there are three types of drugs that can slow down inflammation.
Charcot’s disease: also called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the disease affects the central motor neuron fibers, the part in the spine that controls the muscles. The disease leads to progressive paralysis of the legs and hands, difficulty eating or speaking, and can affect the respiratory system. The origin of the disease has not yet been found, it is familial in 10 to 20% of cases.
Crohn’s disease: pathology that causes inflammation of the intestine. The disease can affect the tip of the small intestine or the entire digestive system from the anus to the mouth, it can either slow down the passage of food or cause diarrhea and intestinal obstructions, and protein, vitamin and calorie deficiencies. Some treatments based on corticosteroids help relieve the pain of inflammation, and other treatments are used as immunosuppressants.
Parkinson’s disease: a pathology generally diagnosed around the age of 60, it affects the central nervous system and progressively destroys the neurons, causing muscular rigidity, tremors and difficulty in remaining stable. The disease is due to a lack of dopamine, which helps cells communicate with each other in the brain. Medications can currently slow its development, and rehabilitation can temporarily limit the impact of the symptoms.
Alzheimer’s disease: a disease caused by the deposition of amyloid plaques outside of neurons, leading to the destruction of cells in the area of the cerebral cortex responsible for sensitivity, language and memory. Treatments can alleviate the symptoms, such as speech therapy and occupational therapy.
Endometriosis: a condition that affects the endometrium, the tissue lining the uterus, which spreads outside the uterus creating lesions and adhesions between the organs. The disease causes, among other things, violent and frequent pelvic pain, difficulties in having a child or renal colic. The most common treatment is continuous contraception to limit symptoms.
Prader Willi’s disease: pathology due to an anomaly of chromosome 15, it leads to behavioural disorders, comprehension difficulties, sociability problems, a dysfunction of the feeling of satiety inducing a strong attraction for food from 2 years old and a high risk of obesity.
Diabetes: characterized by a too-high blood sugar level, diabetes leads to an alteration of the blood vessels and nerves that supply the organs, and the formation of clots that can cause a myocardial infarction. Two types of diabetes are possible, type 1 diabetes, which generally appears in people under 20 years of age and is also called insulin-dependent diabetes, and type 2 diabetes, which generally appears in adulthood. The former requires daily insulin injections due to the body’s lack of insulin production, and the latter requires constant monitoring of blood sugar levels.
Familial hypercholesterolemia: pathology due to a genetic mutation leading to a high level of LDL-cholesterol, also called bad cholesterol. This pathology increases the risk of cardiovascular disease by 50% for men and 30% for women. Cholesterol levels require a careful diet and the prescription of statins can limit the risks for the heart, but these treatments are beginning to be questioned for their side effects.
Cystic fibrosis: a disease caused by the mutation of the CFTR gene located in chromosome 7, responsible for the regulation of salt and water in the body. The disease thickens the mucus that circulates in the body and causes respiratory and digestive disorders, leading to malnutrition, respiratory infections and death. To delay the progression of the disease, patients must take 20 medications a day and learn to breathe properly.